In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations.
In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers in not as entrenched. Members of the executive, called ministers, are also members of the legislature, and hence play an important part in both the writing and enforcing of law.
An executive officer (often abbreviated XO) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.
While there is no clear line between executive or principal and inferior officers, principal officers are high-level officials in the executive branch of U.S. government such as department heads of independent agencies. In Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), the Court distinguished between executive officers and quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial officers by stating that the former serve at the pleasure of the president and may be removed at his discretion. The latter may be removed only with procedures consistent with statutory conditions enacted by Congress. The decision by the Court was that the Federal Trade Commission was a quasi-legislative body because of other powers it had, and therefore the president could not fire an FTC member for political reasons. Congress can’t retain removal power over officials with executive function (Bowsher v. Synar). However, statutes can restrict removal if not purely executive (Humphrey’s executor), but can't restrict removal of purely executive officer (Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)). The standard is whether restriction "impedes the president’s ability to perform his constitutional duty" (Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988)).
Permanently settled for around 2000 years, Zürich has a history that goes back to its founding by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6400 years ago. During the Middle Ages Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli.
Several of the executives they spoke with said the economic picture had lightened in recent weeks ... Several of the executives we spoke with, from places like New York, Shanghai, Munich, London, and Zurich, said the economic picture had lightened in recent weeks.
The 2022 Year-End MiddleMarket Indicator (MMI), NCMM's bi-annual flagship research report, surveyed 1,000 executives from the middle market during December of 2022 ... Chubb maintains executive offices in Zurich, New York, Paris, London and other locations, and employs approximately 31,000 people worldwide.
Tel Aviv company Sign Now is allowing millions of deaf people around the world to take part in activities previously unavailable to them ... HAMAD I MOHAMMED/REUTERS) ... Tomer traveled to Zurich where he met with top executives at FIFA, which ultimately led the company to provide sign language interpretation to highlights of 64 games ... .
smiles to the crowd as Filipinos based in Switzerland take phone camera shots of the ChiefExecutive during his meet-and-greet with the PH community in Zurich on Friday ... We don’t want to get trampled,” the Chief Executive pointed out.
ZURICH, Jan. 5, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Chubb Limited (NYSE. CB) will hold its fourth quarter earnings conference call on Wednesday, February 1, 2023, at 8.30 a.m. Eastern ... About Chubb ... Chubb maintains executive offices in Zurich, New York, London, Paris and other locations, and employs approximately 34,000 people worldwide ... www.chubb.com ... ....
Insurance executives have been increasingly vocal in recent years about systemic risks, such as pandemics and climate change, that test the sector's ability to provide coverage ... But MarioGreco, chief executive at insurer Zurich, told the Financial Times that cyber was the risk to watch.
Warning comes from MarioGreco, chief executive at insurer Zurich. The chief executive of Zurich, one of Europe’s biggest insurance companies, has warned that cyber attacks, rather than natural catastrophes, will become “uninsurable”.